Standard methods for Apis mellifera anatomy and dissection.

Authors: Norman L Carreck, Michael Andree, Colin S Brent, Diana Cox-Foster, Harry A Dade, James D Ellis, Fani Hatjina, Dennis vanEnglesdorp.

Table of contents

Authors
Summary
1. Introduction
2. Anatomy
3. Dissection
  
3.1 Apparatus and materials
      3.1.1. The dissecting microscope
      3.1.2. Dissecting instruments
      3.1.3. Reagents
      3.1.4. Material and its preservation
      3.1.5. Mounting bees for dissection
   3.2. Dissection of the worker bee
      3.2.1. The general dissection
      3.2.2. The abdomen

         3.2.2.1. Exposing the viscera (Plates 1, and 8 A and B)
         3.2.2.2. Displaying the alimentary canal (Plate 9)
         3.2.2.3. The underlying organs (Plate 10)
         3.2.2.4. Rapid removal of alimentary canal and associated glands in the abdomen
      3.2.3. The thorax
         3.2.3.1. Exposing the flight muscles (Plates 8A and 12)
         3.2.3.2. Oesophagus and glands (Plate 9)
         3.2.3.3. The nervous system in the thorax (Plate 10)
      3.2.4. The head (Plates, 8, 9, 10)
         3.2.4.1. Exposing the brain, and other structures.
         3.2.4.2. Displaying the glands and antennal lobes (Plates 9, 10)
      3.2.5. Lateral dissection of the worker
         3.2.5.1. The head
         3.2.5.2. The thorax
         3.2.5.3. The abdomen
      3.2.6. Dissection of the laying worker (Plate 17)
   3.3. Dissection of the head, all castes
      3.3.1. Preparation
      3.3.2. Worker's head, from the anterior aspect (Plate 13)

         3.3.2.1. The glands
         3.3.2.2. The brain
      3.3.3. Worker's head, from the posterior aspect (Plate 13)
         3.3.3.1. The glands
         3.3.3.2. The brain and suboesophageal ganglion
      3.3.4. Isolation of the retrocerebral complex
         3.3.4.1. Dissection of the RCC from the head capsule
         3.3.4.2. Isolation of the RCC and CA
         3.3.4.3. Dissection of the brain from the head capsule
      3.3.5. The head of the drone
      3.3.6. The head of the queen

   3.4. Dissection of the drone
      3.4.1. Preparation for dissection
      3.4.2. Immature drone, dissection from the dorsal aspect (Plate 14)

         3.4.2.1 Exposing the viscera
         3.4.2.2. The reproductive apparatus
         3.4.2.3. Maturing drone (Plate 15)
         3.4.2.4. Mature drone
         3.4.2.5. The everted endophallus (Plate 15)
   3.5. Dissection of the queen
      3.5.1. Preparation
      3.5.2. Dissection of the fertile queen (Plate 16)

         3.5.2.1. Exposing the viscera (Plate l6A)
         3.5.2.2. Displaying the reproductive organs (Plate 16B)
         3.5.2.3. Weight of ovaries
         3.5.2.4. Number of ovarioles
         3.5.2.5. Diameter of the spermatheca
      3.5.3. Dissection of the fertile queen from the ventral aspect
      3.5.4. Dissection of the virgin queen (Plate 17)
      3.5.5. Spermatozoa in the spermatheca

   3.6. Dissection of the juvenile forms
      3.6.1. Dissection of the larva (Plate 19)
      3.6.2. Dissection of the prepupa
      3.6.3. Pupae
4. Acknowledgements
5. References

 

Robert Brodschneider
Robert Brodschneider says:
Oct 30, 2014 09:15 PM

The name of the last author is not Dennis vanEnglesdorp but Dennis van Engelsdorp. For example, see vanEngelsdorp et al., 2009 Plos One