6.3.1. Aversive conditioning of proboscis extension
In one option, electric shock is applied to the extended proboscis when it makes contact with the tip of a syringe. Smith, Abramson, and Tobin (1991) trained bees to withhold proboscis extension in a situation in which two conditioned stimuli were paired with sucrose, but response to one of them was followed by a shock to the extended proboscis. Bees readily learned to make the discrimination by responding to the odour not associated with shock. Although this procedure has not been used to investigate the molecular basis of learning in the honey bee, it can certainly be used so.