2.2. Isolation and cultivation of primary gut cells

The gut epithelium provides a barrier or a first line defence against many honey bee pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi (including microsporidia). It is therefore among the first tissues to be attacked and infected by several honey bee pathogens. Studying these interactions at the cellular level is best accomplished by using the appropriate target cells, which are gut epithelial cells. Hence, protocols for the cultivation of gut cells have been urgently needed. We here provide such a protocol recently developed for studying Paenibacillus larvae interactions with midgut cells (Poppinga et al., 2012).