Glass capillary electrodes

A glass capillary electrode usually consists of a borosilicate glass capillary pulled out to produce a tapering end (~ 1 μm in diameter) in a pipette puller and filled afterwards with sensillum haemolymph mimics e.g. Ringer (see the BEEBOOK paper on cell cultures by Genersch et al., 2013 for a recipe) or Ephrussi solution (Christensen, 2004). The saline-filled glass capillary is then pushed over a silver wire fixed into a micro-manipulator (Fig. 5a). This electrode type can be used to record EAGs from intact honey bees, excised honey bee heads and excised antennae.