Topographic maps (Fig. 4) are representations of the terrain which
include both natural and man-made features, including, relief (in the form of
contour lines), towns, villages, roads, and other geographic characteristics
(Burrough and McDonnell, 1998). They are those maps which people are most
familiar with. In GIS, topographic maps are stored in raster format in their entirety,
but can also be broken down into their respective categories (rivers,
buildings, roads, etc.) in vector layers.
Fig. 4. A sample topographic map (scale 1: 200 000) covering the study area of Fribourg, Switzerland. This map comes from Swisstopo (2013) and must only be used for visualization purposes in this paper. Reproduced with permission of Swisstopo (BA13016).