4.2.1. Considerations for choosing to use newly emerged workers for laboratory experiments

Collecting newly emerged workers, or “tenerals” as described by Winston (1987), is an easy and accurate method for obtaining large quantities of adults of a homogenous age. Newly emerged adults can be an important source of relatively ‘clean’ individuals because they are exposed to hive and environmental conditions less than older ones. It should be noted that it is virtually impossible to prevent, with 100% certainty, horizontal residue or pathogen contamination because of conditions in which workers develop within the colony (i.e. developing individuals are fed bee products in a wax cell) and because newly emerged workers, even caged on a frame in the laboratory, will feed on frame food stores, manipulate wax, and interact with previously emerged individuals. Newly emerged workers are also appropriate to use when examining possible treatment effects on honey bee longevity, or intra-host parasite development because individuals can be maintained in the laboratory for a number of weeks.