7.3.1. Types of proteins to provide to caged adult workers in the laboratory

Similar to carbohydrates, source and type of protein (i.e. protein content and amino acid composition) can significantly influence honey bee development, longevity, and immunity (e.g. Haydak, 1970; Pernal and Currie, 2000; Brodschneider and Crailsheim, 2010; DeGrandi-Hoffman et al., 2010; Alaux et al., 2011a). Proteins can be fed to laboratory workers in a variety of forms, although nutritive value, palatability, and digestibility will vary. For example, individuals survived longer (Beutler and Opfinger, 1948) and had higher protein titre levels (Cremonez et al., 1998) when fed pollen collected from the comb (i.e. bee bread) versus pollen traps (i.e. corbicular pollen). Additionally, Peng et al. (2012) found that head weight (a surrogate for hypopharyngeal gland size) was larger in young workers fed pollen substitutes compared to various pollen diets.