Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research.

Hannelie Human1*, Robert Brodschneider2, Vincent Dietemann1, 3, Galen Dively4, James D Ellis5, Eva Forsgren6, Ingemar Fries6, Fani Hatjina7, Fu-Liang Hu8, Rodolfo Jaffé9, Annette Bruun Jensen10, Angela Köhler1, Joseph Magyar11, Asli Özikrim12, Christian W W Pirk1, Robyn Rose13†, Ursula Strauss1, Gina Tanner3,14, David R Tarpy16, Jozef J M van der Steen15, Anthony Vaudo16, Fleming Vejsnæs17, Jerzy Wilde18, Geoffrey R Williams3, 14, Huo-Qing Zheng8.

1Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa.
2Department of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University, Graz, Austria.
3Swiss Bee Research Centre, Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP-
Haras, Bern, Switzerland.
4University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4454, USA.
5Honey bee Research and Extension Laboratory, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
6Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
7Hellenic Institute of Apiculture (N.AG.RE.F.), N. Moudania, Greece.
8College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
9División de Educación, Proyecto Sanema, Caracas, Venezuela.
10Department of Agriculture and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensve, 40, 1817 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
11NEXTREAT, Weltistrasse 11, 5000 Aarau, Switzerland.
12Bee Health Laboratory, Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey.
13United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USA.
14Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
15Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Business
Unit Plant Research International, Wageningen, Netherlands.
16Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park,
Pennsylvania, USA.
17Konsulent Danmarks Biavlerforening, Fulbyvej 15, DK-4180 Sorø, Denmark.
18Apiculture Division, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, Warmia and Mazury University, Sloneczna 48, 10-710 Olsztyn, Poland.

The views expressed in section 4.7 are those of the author and do not reflect the views of the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS).

Received 22 May 2012, accepted subject to revision 11 July 2012, accepted for publication 9 May 2013.

*Corresponding author: Email: