3.2.3. Wax source
It is recommended that colonies be established on high quality wax foundation, free from pesticides (confirmed with a residue analysis). Residues in wax can significantly influence test results, especially if the wax comes from different suppliers. A part of, or entire supers can contain frames with drawn (built) combs. However, these combs have to be disinfected (acetic acid fumes, gamma rays) (de Ruijter and van der Steen, 1989; Baggio et al. 2005). Frames and supers treated with acetic acid fumes need to be well ventilated prior to use.