Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera .

Authors: Marina D Meixner, Maria Alice Pinto, Maria Bouga, Per Kryger, Evgeniya Ivanova and Stefan Fuchs.

Table of contents

1. Introduction
2. General considerations
   2.1. Sampling and storing specimens for analysis
   2.2. Specific sampling recommendations

      2.2.1. Sample size
      2.2.2. Killing and storage
3. Available methods and markers
   3.1. Morphometry

      3.1.1.Character suites Choice of character suite Wing venation pattern analysis
   Classical wing morphometry
   Geometric wing shape morphometry
   Classical wing angles, geometric wing analysis, and full body character suites
      3.1.2. Preparation and measuring
      3.1.3. Analysis and statistical methods Documenting and naming honey bee variation Sample identification
      3.1.4.Reference data
   3.2. Mitochondrial DNA
   3.3. Nuclear markers

      3.3.1.Allozymes      Brief description of procedures Data analysis
      3.3.2.DNA microsatellites Data analysis Problems and potential pitfalls with using microsatellites
      3.3.3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
4. Annex: Evolutionary lineages of Apis mellifera
5. Acknowledgements
6. References