Exposure features

First, dose and concentration are both to be considered. Local and general consequences on a living organism are quite different if the same dose is concentrated in one microlitre or if diluted in one millilitre. Depending on the toxin, repellent effects could occur at certain concentrations. Inversely, the forced contact with these concentrations would be able to induce local necrosis, with general consequences. Second, the route of administration is important to overall toxicity because it modulates the rapidity and the extension of the toxin in the living organism as well as the triggering of the detoxification pathways. Third, there is a higher probability of poisoning the longer the duration of the exposure to an AI (and/or its toxic metabolites) (Hodgson, 2004). Finally, the temporal features of the exposure often influence the severity of the poisoning. For example, Brunet et al. (2009) demonstrated that a dose applied daily for five days can induce higher mortality than a dose five times higher but administered one time.