The use of pollen patties

Patties have been used mainly to document the influence of diet on colony development. In some experiments, they have been use to investigate the effects of chronic pesticide exposure on honey bee health (Pettis et al., 2012). Patties are principally made with some kind of protein (commercial products or pollen collected by honey bees) and sugar (syrup or honey) (Mattila and Otis 2006a; Degrandi-Hoffman et al., 2008). Quantities given to colonies are dependent on the purpose of the experiment and on the size of the colony. When patties are used for pesticide studies, they are spiked with the given AI. In the latter case, it is recommended to sample the fresh patties and analyse it for pesticide levels to insure the proper delivery of the target dose to the colony.