Samples can be homogenized with glass beads in mechanical ‘bead mills’, in mesh bags (e.g. Bioreba, Neogen) using a grinding pestle, a stomacher (e.g. Seward Ltd UK) or in microfuge tubes with a micropestle. The choice depends on sample size and type. Individuals can be extracted in the manufacturer´s buffer directly, but for bulk samples a primary extract may be necessary (see section 8.2.1).