1.10.2. Management and treatment
There are a number of management’s techniques that can be used to minimize the effects of chalkbrood in infected colonies:
- Reduce volume of the brood chamber for the overwintering (Seal, 1957)
- Enlarge colony entrance to aid ventilation (Gochnauer et al., 1975)
- Replace old combs (Betts, 1951)
- Heat treatment of the wax (Flores et al., 2005a)
- Requeen affected colonies (Lunder, 1972)
To date, there is no effective chemical treatment against this disease. Nevertheless in vitro (Puerta et al., 1990; Flores et al., 1996b) and in vivo (Flores et al., 2001) techniques have been used to evaluate chemical treatments for chalkbrood control.