Determining proportion of perforated capped brood cells containing SHB eggs (oviposition rate)

  1. Use the method outlined in section to determine the oviposition rate of SHB females in capped brood.
  2. A female SHB will not oviposit in all cells in which she perforates the capping and/or side wall. Consequently calculate the “oviposition rate” as:
    # marked capped brood cells containing SHB eggs
    total number of marked capped brood cells containing perforated cappings and/or side walls
  3. Open the cells marked according to section with forceps.
  4. Determine the number and presence of SHB eggs.
  5. Remove the developing pupa / prepupa to facilitate egg quantification.

Potential additional uses:

The procedures outlined in sections – can be used to:

  • investigate beetle density effects on oviposition (simply vary the number of SHBs in the cages during the oviposition period),
  • screen and possibly select for the level of hygienic expression of honey bees (within and between subspecies) toward SHB eggs and young larvae,
  • determine time, environmental, bee subspecies, etc. impacts on SHB oviposition behaviour,
  • determine colony strength impacts on hygienic behaviour (Ellis and Delaplane, 2008),
  • and investigate other similar areas.