Fig. 11. Ventral and dorsal views of developmental stages of Varroa destructor females (above) and males (below) on A. mellifera brood. Approximate developmental time is given above the horizontal lines of different thicknesses which delimit the stages. Solid lines denote mobile phases, dashed lines immobile phases prior moulting (after Donzé et al., 1994). Immobile and mobile phases can only be distinguished in live material, not in frozen samples. Photos: R Nanelli and S J Martin.