1.1.6. Slow bee paralysis virus

Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) is characterised by the paralysis of the front two pairs of legs of adult bees, a few days before dying, after inoculation by injection (Bailey and Woods, 1974). The virus is associated with, and transmitted by, V. destructor (Bailey and Ball, 1991; Denholm, 1999). Despite this association, SBPV is rarely detected in bee colonies (Bailey and Ball, 1991; de Miranda et al., 2010b). SBPV can also be detected in larvae and pupae, but produces no symptoms in these.