- Mix purified virus with 60% sucrose
to the desired concentration for infecting bees individually or in bulk.
- Feed the virus-sucrose solution
individually to newly emerged adult bees in 5-10 µl volumes, using a Pasteur or
- Immobilize the bees by either
holding their wings or in a suitable restrainer, such as head-first in a 1.5 ml
microcentrifuge tube with the bottom cut off (see the section 'standard methods
for immobilising, terminating, and storing adult Apis mellifera' in the
BEEBOOK paper on miscellaneous methods (Human et al., 2013).
- Bulk-feeding of the virus-sucrose
solution to adult bees is done either in hoarding cages, using disposable 15 ml
plastic feeding tubes (see the BEEBOOK
paper on maintaining adult Apis mellifera
workers in cages; Williams et al., 2013) or in whole colonies using
internal or top feeders. In both cases it is important to calculate the amount
of purified virus needed to ensure that each bee gets the minimum infectious
dose (Table 3).
- Include a series of control
inoculations, using sucrose solution without virus.