5.6. Gamma–ray irradiation and sterilization
The ideal moth developmental stage for irradiation is the pharate adult (see Section 3). During this stage, the somatic cells have fully differentiated and germ cells are most actively dividing (Jafari et al., 2010). Not only does irradiation at this time minimize the likelihood of adult abnormalities like deformed wings (which would keep them from being useful in sterile male release campaigns), but the specimen is also very easy to handle without risk of escape or damage (North, 1975). Males are more resistant to gamma ray sterilization than females (Carpenter et al., 2005) and the effective irradiation doses are 350 Gy and 200 Gy, respectively (Flint and Merkle, 1983; Jafari et al., 2010). Specific methodologies for irradiation facilities and techniques are somewhat standard and will not be described beyond the parameters presented above.